MERITS Presentations

In addition to the day-to-day activities on the grant, the staff is actively engaged in research activities.

This includes peer-reviewed journal articles, books, book chapters, and presentations at professional conferences.

Below is a list of MERITS-related presentations with either brief abstracts or links to the PowerPoint presentations!

Invited Presentations

  • Eby. L. T., (2013, July). Creating and sustaining healthy workplaces. Keynote speaker, Center for Applied Behavioral Health Policy, Arizona State University, Sedona, AZ. Eby Keynote 2013
  • Eby. L. T., (2013, July). How to reduce turnover in substance use disorder treatment. Invited workshop, Center for Applied Behavioral Health Policy, Arizona State University, Sedona, AZ. AZ Breakout Group Session
  • Eby. L. T. (2013, May). Retaining substance abuse treatment (SAT) professionals. Invited tele-presentation. Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Bureau of Prevention Treatment and Recovery, Madison, WI.
  • Eby, L. T., & Brown, B. L. (2012, June). How to retain counselors and clinical supervisors. Workshop presented at the SAAS National Conference and NIATx Summit. New Orleans, LA. NIATx June 2012
  • Kinkade, K., Sparks, T., & Eby, L. T. (2012, June). Evaluating the effects of the OASAS tobacco-free regulation on the substance abuse treatment workforce: lessons learned and best practices. Presentation in the “Helping people change” workshop. The Department of Substance Abuse Services, Zucker Hillside Hospital, Long Island, NY. Kinkade June 2012
  • Eby, L. T. (2012, April). Turnover and the substance abuse treatment workforce: Results from Project MERITS. Research Utilization Committee, NIDA Clinical Trials Network Steering Committee Meeting. Atlanta, GA. CTN RU April 2012
  • Eby, L. T. (2012, March). Understanding the substance abuse treatment workforce: an industrial/organizational psychology perspective. Epidemiology, Prevention, and Health Services Seminar Series, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD. NIDA March 2012
  • Eby, L. T. (2012, February). Evaluating the effects of the OASAS tobacco-free regulation on the substance abuse treatment workforce: lessons learned and best practices. Presentation at The Addiction Research Dissemination Implementation and Sustainability initiative, which is supported by the NYULMC Center of Excellence on Addiction and the NYU Division of General Internal Medicine.  NYU February 2012
  • Eby, L. T. (2012, January). Implementing smoking cessation in substance abuse treatment: workplace barriers and facilitators. Keynote address at MDQuit Best Practices Conference, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Columbia, MD. UMD January 2012
  • Eby, L. T. (2010, January). Implementing smoking cessation initiatives in substance abuse treatment: evidence-based recommendations. Paper presented at the winter board meeting of the Therapeutic Communities of America. Houston, Texas. TCA presentation
  • Eby, L. T. (2009, July). Coping with emotional labor in the work and family domain: a longitudinal study of multi-domain surface acting, deep acting, and strain outcomes. Paper presented at the III International Conference of Work and Family, Barcelona, Spain. Eby Spain 2009

Peer Reviewed Presentations

  • Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. T. (2015, November). I’m not a smoker, but can I have a light? Self-identification of smoking status in adult smokers. American Public Health Association, 143rd meeting, Chicago, IL.

Research designated smoking categories have been used for years to help explain nicotine addiction and aid in smoking cessation. However, as we develop smoking cessation interventions for the millions of people who are smokers, we unknowingly omit those who would never categorize themselves as smokers, or those who smoke lesser amounts, leaving them at greater risk. This study examines the self-categorization of smoking status of 182 substance abuse treatment counselors who have smoked in the past 30 days. The respondents labeled their personal smoking status as “regular,” “once in a while,” or “ex.”  Self-identified “regular smokers” were more likely to be a daily smoker (p<0.001), smoke all 30 days in the past month (p<0.001), and smoke a pack or more cigarettes per day (p<0.001).  Further, “regular” smokers were less likely to want to quit smoking (p=0.014). “Regular” smokers also seem to have more addictive behaviors towards nicotine.  They were more likely to smoke earlier in the day (p<0.001), have a hard time not smoking in places where smoking is not allowed (p=0.001), hate giving up the first cigarette of the day (p=0.005), and smoke if sick in bed (p<0.001).  Self Identification of Smoking Status could help develop new programs aimed at different categories of smokers, as well as target certain individuals who may not associate themselves with smoking but still carry out the behavior.  Understanding the different needs of these different smokers is essential in smoking cessation treatments and interventions, and halting the progression to habitual smoking behaviors.

  • Laschober, T. C., Eby, L. T., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2015, October). Relationship between perceptions of workplace leadership and counselors’ implementation of tobacco cessation services. Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) annual conference, Marina Del Ray, CA.

Background and Aims: The vast majority of patients in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) smoke cigarettes and most of them are interested in quitting. Clinical practice guidelines recommend a range of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for tobacco cessation (TC) such as behavioral treatments and pharmacotherapy. Nonetheless, implementation of TC services by counselors remains low. Guided by leadership theories, the current study examines the relationship between counselors’ perceptions of leadership in their treatment program and implementation of TC EBTs with their patients who smoke.

Methods: Survey data were obtained in 2010 from the Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS III) project. A total of 883 counselors working in 254 treatment programs across the U.S. provided data for this study. Counselors were asked with how many of their last 10 patients (0-10 scale) who smoked they used the 5 A’s for TC (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange), TC counseling (10 items), and TC pharmacotherapy (9 items). Perceptions of leadership were measured with three scales including program leadership (7 items), supervisor support (4 items), and healthy workplace climate (5 items). Control variables were counselors’ smoking status and the percentage of patients in the treatment program that smoke.

Results: The 5 A’s for TC were implemented with an average of 5.19 patients, TC counseling with 4.32 patients, and TC pharmacotherapy with 0.65 patients. Results using mixed-effects models for nested data showed that healthy workplace climate was positively related with 5 A’s, counseling, and pharmacotherapy implementation; program leadership was positively related with 5 A’s implementation; supervisor support was not related with any TCS implementation.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that two aspects of leadership in SUD treatment programs regarding counselors’ TCS implementation merit further investigation regarding interventions to increase the use of TCS. First, the positive relationship between healthy workplace climates and all types of TCS implementation implies that treatment programs could focus on improving employees’ health and enforcing health-related policies (e.g., smoking policies, medical exams). Second, the positive association between program leadership and 5 A’s implementation proposes that effective management and clinical supervision could be further emphasized to encourage implementation of TC EBTs.

  • Abraham, A. J., Eby, L. T., Johnson, J. A., Laschober, T. C., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2015, October). The influence of market factors on the adoption of tobacco cessation services in hospital-based treatment programs. Paper to be presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) annual conference, Marina Del Ray, CA.

Tobacco use remains the leading actual cause of death in the United States. To address this issue, coverage of tobacco cessation (TC) services is now required in many health insurance plans under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). National efforts are also underway to integrate treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) into primary care settings. SUD treatment programs operating in hospital-based settings offer an opportunity to examine unique factors associated with the implementation of TC services in primary care settings. While prior research has examined organizational and workforce characteristics associated with adoption of TC services, research has not examined the impact of the external environment on organizational decisions to adopt these services. In particular, the literature suggests that market factors (e.g., supply/demand, competition) influence the decision to adopt such services. This study combines longitudinal data (2010-2011) from the Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS III) project with county-level data from the 2010 Area Health Resource File, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to examine the association between market factors and adoption of TC services in hospital-based treatment programs. MERITS III data were collected via telephone interviews with program administrators of 1006 SUD treatment programs in 2010. Approximately 12 months later, program administrators completed a second telephone interview (n=685). This study includes data from a sub-sample of hospital-based treatment programs from this sample (n=104). Multilevel logistic regression models examine the adoption of TC counseling and TC pharmacotherapy at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Results show that hospital-based programs located in counties with higher percentages of SUD treatment programs that do not place restrictions on indoor or outdoor smoking are less likely to offer TC counseling and TC pharmacotherapy services. However, the percentage of cigarette smokers in the county and percentage of hospitals in the county offering TC services are not significantly associated with TC service adoption. At the organizational, level hospital programs with a higher percentage of patients who smoke are more likely to adopt TC services, as are programs with indoor or outdoor smoking bans. Programs that offer outpatient only services are also less likely to adopt TC services. These findings indicate that hospital-based treatment programs are influenced by the external environment in terms of local smoking policy but are less sensitive to competitor’s actions (e.g. provision of TC services) or the need for services as measured by county-level smoking prevalence. Results suggest hospitals are not responding to the greater needs of the local community in terms of TC service delivery, but with the ACA requirement to conduct community health needs assessments, increases in the adoption of both TC and SUD treatment services may be forthcoming. Changes in insurance requirements under ACA, may also increase the delivery of TC services. If more hospitals begin to offer TC services, hospitals in the local labor market may become more responsive to this increased competition.

  • Muilenburg, J. L., Moore, N., & Eby, L. T. (2014, November). I can’t smoke here? An investigation of smoke free policies and practices in substance abuse treatment programs. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Banning of tobacco products has traditionally decreased the amount of smoking in both the public and private sector. However, little research has been conducted in places where tobacco is thought to maintain sobriety, such as substance abuse treatment facilities. Information from recent studies indicates that abstinence from tobacco products during treatment can actually increase the chances of sobriety. A recent push has many addiction treatment centers opting for a smoke-free environment, and in some cases requiring smoking abstinence of counselors and patients alike. This study investigates the prevalence of smoking bans, and if these bans impact smoking attitudes and smoking cessation practices. A total of 1026 program administrators in substance abuse treatment facilities were interviewed for a federally funded study. Only 53.7% reported their substance abuse treatment center as being 100% smoke-free. If a property was smoke-free, the program administrators were more likely to report: Smoking is not accepted as part of the staff culture (p<0.001); smoking cessation in an important issue in treatment of other substance abuse problems (p<0.001); smoking cessation can be worked into treatment protocols (p<0.001); continuing smoking will discourage successful treatment of the primary substance abuse treatment (p<0.001); staff have skills to provide smoking cessation treatments (p=0.002); and staff have an interest in providing patients with smoking cessation treatments (p<0.001). This study highlights the importance smoke-free facilities have in changing attitudes and practices pertaining to smoking behaviors, even when traditional social norms dictate otherwise.

  • Laschober, T. C., Eby, L. T., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2014, October). Counselors’ decisions (not) to implement tobacco cessation 5A’s, counseling, or pharmacotherapy with patients who smoke. Paper presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, Boston, MA.

A high percentage of patients in substance abuse treatment smoke and many are interested in quitting. This study examined why some counselors who have experience with at least 10 patients who smoke use evidence-based tobacco cessation services (TCS) while others with the same experience decide not to use TCS with their patients. As suggested by social cognitive theory, we hypothesize that counselors’ decisions to use TCS (5As, counseling, pharmacotherapy) are related to (1) cognitive factors (perceived competence in and attitudes toward TC), (2) behavioral factors (TC skills and training), and (3) environmental factors (program’s TC financial constraints, co-worker attitudes toward TC). Data were obtained from 942 counselors working in 257 treatment programs located across the U.S. that participated in the MERITS III project in 2010. Logistic regression models for nested data (counselors within treatment programs) were conducted to address the hypotheses. Eighty-six percent of counselors used the 5As, 76% used counseling, and 53% used pharmacotherapy. Use of the 5As was more likely when counselors had greater skills and training. Use of counseling was more likely when counselors had more positive TC attitudes, greater training, fewer financial constraints, and when co-workers had more positive TC attitudes. Finally, use of pharmacotherapy was more likely when counselors had more positive TC attitudes, greater training, and fewer financial constraints. Cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors, especially TC-related training, attitudes, and financial constraints, predict the use of TCS and should simultaneously be taken into consideration when developing strategies to increase counselors’ use of TCS.

  • Eby, L. T., Muilenburg, J. L., & Laschober, T. C. (2014, October). Counselor,organizational, and policy-related predictors of longitudinal changes in tobacco cessation services adoption and implementation. Paper presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, Boston, MA.

Using Klein and Sorra’s (1996) innovation implementation theoretical framework, the major goals of this 3-wave longitudinal study were to examine (1) changes in both adoption and implementation of evidence-based tobacco cessation services (TCS) over time, including pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments (Fiore et al., 2008), (2) changes over time in counselor (skills, commitment), organizational (staff shortage) and policy-related (reimbursement) factors that account for changes in TCS, (3) changes in adoption as predictors of changes in implementation, and (4) moderators of the relationship between changes in adoption and changes in implementation. Survey data were obtained from the Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS III) project over 3-waves between 2010 and 2013. A total of 1,156 counselors working in 191 treatment programs completed at least 2 surveys. Individual growth models showed that both the adoption and implementation of TC behavioral treatments significantly decreased over time; however, no significant changes were found for pharmacotherapy. Only changes in TCS reimbursement predicted decreases in behavioral treatments. Counselors who reported greater extents of reimbursement at baseline experienced greater drops in behavioral treatment adoption over time. Changes in the adoption of behavioral treatments did not predict changes in behavioral implementation, and no significant moderator effects were found. Despite industry efforts to increase EBPs in treatment programs, our findings indicate a lack of growth and in fact discouraging trends in the adoption and implementation of TCS. Moreover, few theoretically supported factors predict changes in TCS over time suggesting the need for empirical reconsideration of factors that drive or hinder TCS adoption and implementation.

  • Eby, L. T. (2014, May). Broadening our sphere of influence: exemplars of science advocacy. Panelist in executive board invited session at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.
  • Eby, L. T. (2014, May). Best practices in the collection on high-quality field data. Panelist in panel discussion at annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.
  • Eby, L. T. (2014, May). Mistakes to avoid in submitting a grant application. Facilitated SIOP Speed Mentoring Session at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.
  • *Brown, B. L., & Eby, L. T. (2014, May). Symbolic immortality: Understanding mortality awareness and meaningful work behaviors. Paper presented in symposium, “What’s it to you? Understanding differences in meaningful work (Brown & Eby, Co-Chairs). Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.3-Brown&Eby
  • Eby, L. T. & Butts, M. M. (2014, May). Using multisource data to understand he unfolding of good and bad mentoring over time. In “Research incubator: Nurturing emergent themes in mentoring” (O’Brien, Chair). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.Eby Mentoring Incubator
  • Butts, M. M., Eby, L. T., Allen, T. D., Mitchell, M., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2014, May). Work-nonwork balance and health-related outcomes: A latent growth modeling approach. Paper presented in symposium “What is balance? Gaining consistent definition, assessment, and prediction (Casper & Odle-Dusseau, Co-Chairs). Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.
  • *Lorys, A., *Dean, K. E., *Mitchell, M., *Provolt, C., *Gray, C., & Eby, L. T. (2014, May). Performance and engagement outcomes of gambling interference with work and nonwork. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, San Francisco, CA. APS Poster_FINAL_MM_5.2.1
  • Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. T. (2014, March). Adolescents vs. adults: Differences in access to smoking cessation services in substance abuse treatment centers. American Academy of Health Behavior, Charleston SC.Nicotine is considered one of the most addictive drugs, yet there are few programs that treat nicotine addiction on the same level as alcohol and other drugs. This can be problematic, particularly when there is a window for halting the progression of nicotine addiction into adulthood. This study investigates the differences in availability of smoking cessation tools in adolescent and adult programs. Data were collected using online surveys administered to 985 counselors using the SAMHSA database for substance abuse centers. In general, there was not an abundance of pharmacological treatments available for patients. Further, those programs treating adolescents were less likely that adult treatment facilities to provide nicotine gum (p<0.001), lozenges (p=0.001), nasal sprays (p=0.014), inhalers (p=0.007), bupropion (p<0.001), verenicline (p<0.001), clonidine (p=0.001), or nortriptyline (p=0.001). In terms to behavioral treatments, there is a range of availability. Interestingly, adolescent programs were more likely than adult programs to ask a patient if they are a current smoker (p=0.027), and asses willingness to quit (p=0.036). However, adult treatment facilities were more likely to offer group counseling specifically geared toward smoking cessation (p<0.001) community referrals (p=0.007) and telephone counseling (p=0.007). Most importantly, adult centers are more likely to treat adults with both behavioral and pharmaceutical combinations, the gold standard of smoking cessation treatment (p=0.031). With the behavioral research in smoking cessation supporting the practice of behavioral therapy along with pharmacological interventions, research needs to focus on the barriers to providing smoking cessation treatment in substance abuse facilities, particularly for those treating adolescents.
  • Laschober, T. C., & Eby, L. T. (2014, February). Effective clinical supervision and counselor job performance in substance abuse treatment programs. Paper presented at the Clinical Teaching/Learning in Nursing and Health Sciences Conference hosted by the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, College of Nursing, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. T. (2013, November). Attitudes towards smoking cessation programs offered to adolescents receiving treatment for alcohol and other substances. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

Nicotine is considered one of the most addictive drugs, yet there are few programs that treat nicotine addiction on the same level as alcohol and other drugs. This can be problematic, particularly when there is a window for halting the progression of nicotine addiction into adulthood. This study is a subsample of a larger federally funded study that includes over 1000 substance abuse treatment centers. This subsample (N=493) includes only those counselors in treatment centers who treat adolescent patients. Most respondents were female (70.6%), White (81.5%) and have an average age of 44. Most counselors agree that smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to a patient’s readiness to quit (49.8%), that smoking cessation should be an integral part of the treatment program (48.1%), and that treating tobacco addiction is as important as treating other drugs (41.1%). Further, the clinicians disagree that patient attendance would be affected (26.7%) by requiring smoking cessation programs. These results indicate that most counselors are in support of smoking cessation for adolescents in substance abuse treatment facilities. However, most substance abuse treatment centers are reluctant to treat nicotine addiction alongside other substances. Policy changes in substance abuse treatment centers should change to support the counselors’ willingness to provide smoking cessation to drug addicted patients.

  • Proctor, C., Muilenburg, J. L., Barnett, J., Conway, K. M., & Eby, L. (2013, November). Beliefs about tobacco policies at substance abuse centers: does smoking status influence acceptance? Posterpresented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

Research shows that smoking cessation interventions during addiction treatment enhance chances of patients’ sobriety; however, many treatment facilities have not adopted anti-smoking policies and continue to discredit smoking cessation treatments. This study examines tobacco use among program administrators and the influence of use on beliefs about anti-smoking policies. Data were collected using online surveys administered August 2012-January 2013 to 780 program administrators from randomly selected substance abuse treatment facilities across the nation. The study asked program administrators who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetimes about current smoking status. Among program administrators identified as ever-smokers, 57.6% were ex-smokers, 7.3% were once in a while smokers, 8.9% were regular smokers, and 26.2% were non-smokers. Regular smokers were significantly more likely to disagree or strongly disagree that substance abuse facilities should have a no smoking policy for patients, visitors and employees (p=.000). Ex-smokers, non-smokers, and once in a while smokers were significantly more likely to support smoking bans at substance abuse facilities for patients, visitors and employees (p=.000). Overall, program administrators who did not self-identify as regular smokers were in favor of smoking bans for all persons at substance abuse facilities. Universal smoking bans have been shown to enhance chances of patients’ sobriety. Because this study found that regular smokers were outnumbered by a ratio of 10 to 1 by ex-smokers, non-smokers and once in a while smokers, more research must be done to determine why more treatment facilities have not adopted smoking bans.

  • Proctor, C., Barnett, J., Muilenburg, J. L., Conway, K. M., & Eby, L. (2013, November). Examining counselor training and knowledge of evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for co-occurring substance abuse is between 70-95%; however, little is known about the quality of smoking cessation programs offered alongside substance abuse treatment or whether counselors use evidence-based treatment (EBTs) approaches to smoking cessation. Previous studies find that many patients desire to quit smoking when recovering from drug and alcohol abuse, and the success of sobriety increases when patients quit smoking. This study will examine educational training of counselors and knowledge about EBTs for nicotine dependence. Data were collected from online surveys administered to 1054 counselors from randomly selected substance abuse treatment facilities across the nation. When examining formal education training in substance abuse, 47.2% reported training to some extent and 44.1% reported to a great extent. Mental health educational training was similar to that of substance abuse, with 40.9% of counselors reporting some extent and 52.1% reporting a great extent. Fifty-seven percent (57%) of counselors reported having 0 hours of training on smoking cessation within the past year, and 31.7% of counselors reported only 1-10 hours of smoking cessation training. When examining knowledge of EBTs for smoking cessation, 58.5% reported some knowledge and 35% reported no knowledge at all about the treatments. Access to EBTs for smoking cessation has been hindered by lack of counselor knowledge and training for effectively treating smoking; therefore, efforts must be made to include smoking cessation training to improve overall treatment of patients.

  • Conway, K. M., Muilenburg, J. L., Proctor, C., Barnett, J., & Eby, L. (2013, November). How much accessibility do patients in substance abuse treatment centers really have of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation? Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

Many substance abuse treatment facilities do not necessarily make an effort to encourage smoking cessation, even if they have patients who are interested in quitting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the availability that patients have of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation. The study population of substance abuse counselors was derived from over 1,000 randomly-selected facilities using the SAMHSA database. A total of 1,054 counselors completed a web-based survey. We investigated what counselors actually provided to the last 10 patients who were addicted to nicotine. We found that behavioral therapies were much more accessible to patients than pharmacological therapies. Even though 45.1% of treatment centers reported accessibility of the nicotine patch, only 10.2% of the last 10 patients received this treatment. Similar trends are seen with other pharmacological therapies, including 29.9% having access to nicotine gum, with only 6.3% of their last 10 patients actually receiving this treatment. In terms of behavioral treatments, they were more accessible than pharmacological treatments. However, as with pharmacological therapies, they are not administered at a high percentage. This study will report on each of the therapies, both in accessibility and administration. From previous research, the best results for nicotine dependence are a combination of pharmacological and behavioral therapies. Given this research, it is important to include both therapies when treating nicotine addiction. Research in barriers to pharmacological therapies is the next step to treating nicotine addiction in drug and alcohol addicted patients.

  • Proctor, C., Muilenburg, J. L., Barnett, J., Conway, K. M., & Eby, L. (2013, November). An examination of smoking quit methods used by program administrators at substance abuse treatment centers. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

Research has shown that most smokers who successfully quit do so own their own, but many use other cessation programs or methods at some point during their smoking history. This study will examine smoking behaviors and quit methods of program administrators at substance abuse treatment facilities. Data were collected using online surveys administered August 2012-January 2013 to 780 program administrators from randomly selected substance abuse treatment facilities across the nation. This study found that 57.6% of program administrators were ex-smokers and 15% of program administrators were current smokers. Out of the program administrators who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (57.6%), 98% had tried to quit smoking and 94.4% had successfully quit smoking for more than six months. The most popular quit method reported was going “cold turkey” (33.7%). About 13.0% of program administrators had used nicotine replacement therapy to quit smoking, 6.0% had switched to low tar cigarettes, 5.8% used non-prescription products, 5.8% attended a program, 2.7% used hypnosis, 2.2% saw a doctor or psychologist, and 1.4% used special filters or holders. About 36.0% of program administrators reported using other methods to quit smoking, such as acupuncture, prayer, deep breathing, meditation, exercise, and family support. Overall, 76.3% of program administrators used methods other than “cold turkey” to quit smoking. More research should be conducted about smoking cessation methods in various settings, such as substance abuse treatment centers, so health professionals can tailor interventions for their own smoking cessation needs and the needs of their patients.

  • Barnett, J., Proctor, C., Conway, K., Muilenburg, J., & Eby, L. (2013, November). Smoking cessation’s impact on sobriety: directors’ beliefs link to treatments offered in substance abuse centers. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

Data were collected using telephone surveys administered September 2011 – July 2012 to 881 program directors and administrators (PAs) from substance abuse treatment facilities randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. Despite current research indicating that sustaining from nicotine while quitting other drugs helps maintain long-term sobriety, results from this study indicate almost 18% of PAs believe quitting smoking early in substance abuse treatment decreases chances of sobriety. Another 20% believe smoking cessation (SC) interventions have no effect on sobriety. PAs who believe SC interventions early in treatment decrease/have no effect on sobriety were significantly more likely to: Believe their staff has no interest in providing SC treatments (p=0.00), believe letting patients continue smoking facilitates successful treatment of their primary substance abuse issues (p=0.00), and to not be licensed/certified as a substance abuse professional (p=0.04). These PAs’ programs were also significantly less likely than PAs who believed SC increases sobriety to offer SC treatments like: Brief counselor interventions (p=0.001), social support or problem solving/skills training counseling (p=0.00), group counseling (p=0.00), and self-help materials (p=0.005). Availability of the nicotine patch (p=0.002) and counselor training/resources on SC treatments (p=0.00) were also significantly less likely. PAs’ beliefs contradict research supporting SC and correlate with their programs’ lack of treatment options. PAs often control treatment protocols, and addressing their beliefs is a vital step toward increasing SC in substance abuse treatment centers.

  • Barnett, J., Proctor, C., Conway, K., Muilenburg, J., & Eby, L. (2013, November). Knowing those who help others: characteristics of substance abuse counselors across the United States. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Conference (APHA), Boston, MA.

Substance abuse counselors help people in crisis regain healthier lives, but little is known about counselors’ lives and needs. Substance abuse counselors have high burnout/turnover rates, and investigating their lives is a vital step toward improving counselor support systems and resources. This study reports demographic, workplace, and health characteristics of 1054 substance abuse counselors across the United States. Counselors were randomly selected from the SAMHSA database and completed an extensive online survey. Most were female (69.5%) and non-Hispanic (91.7%). Most identified as White (73.3%) or Black/African American (15.2). The average counselor had 8.29 years of counseling practice (sd = 7.37 years, range

  • Muilenburg, J. L., Laschober, T. C., & Eby, L. T. (2013, October). Climate for innovations indices as predictors of tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy adoption extensiveness. In J. L. Muilenburg (Chair), Adoption and utilization of medication assisted treatments. Symposium conducted at the Addiction Health Services Research Conference, Portland, OR.

Research in the substance use disorder (SUD) treatment field on tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy (TCP) adoption is often limited by the selection of study variables that are not explicitly tied to existing theoretical frameworks, incomplete inclusion of all available TCP, and non-random samples. In this study, we use Klein and Sorra’s (1996) innovation implementation effectiveness theoretical framework to examine three climate for innovations indices (i.e., clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) as predictors of TCP adoption extensiveness (comprised of the nine available TCP), in a large random sample of SUD treatment programs located across the U.S. Data were obtained in 2010 from the Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS III) project. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 1006 SUD treatment program administrators. The adoption of TCP is not extensive, occurring in approximately 30% of treatment programs. On average, treatment programs report adopting about 1 TCP (M = .99, SD = 1.93). As predicted, the index representing fewer treatment program obstacles and the index representing greater policy-related incentives predicts more extensive adoption of TCP. Counter to prediction, the clinician skills index is unrelated to the TCP adoption extensiveness. Our findings suggest that climate for innovations indices based on established theories and research outside SUD treatment should further be examined as facilitators of the adoption of diverse TCP in SUD treatment programs.

  • Eby, L. T., Laschober, T. C., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2013, October). The adoption extensiveness of tobacco cessation treatments: does climate for innovation and twelve-step treatment orientation matter? In I. Krull (Chair), Dissemination, implementation and systems Transformation. Symposium conducted at the Addiction Health Services Research Conference, Portland, OR.

The current study fills the gap in the substance use disorder (SUD) treatment literature by using Klein and Sorra’s (1996) theoretical framework on innovations to examine the relationship between three indices of climate for innovations (clinician skills, absence of program obstacles, policy-related incentives) and two indicators of tobacco cessation adoption extensiveness: behavioral treatments for tobacco cessation and system-level support for tobacco cessation. We also examine whether a program’s 12-step treatment orientation relates to adoption extensiveness and whether 12-step treatment orientation moderates the relationship between climate for innovations indices and adoption extensiveness. Data were obtained in 2010 from the Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS III) project. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1006 SUD treatment program administrators located across the U.S. Hierarchical regression models show that fewer program obstacles and greater policy-related incentives are related to greater adoption extensiveness of behavioral treatments and system-level support for tobacco cessation. Interestingly, twelve-step treatment orientation is neither related to adoption extensiveness nor serves as a moderator of the relationship between climate for innovations and adoption extensiveness. The adoption of behavioral treatments and system-level support for tobacco cessation is not extensive, theoretical frameworks outside of SUD treatment are beneficial for selecting more targeted predictors of adoption, and 12-step treatment orientation neither hampers nor promotes the adoption of behavioral treatments and system-level support for tobacco cessation.

  • Kinkade, K.M., Provolt, L., & Eby, L.T. (2013, May).  Does identity matter? The moderating role of recovery status on professional stigma and burnout.  Paper presented at the Work, Stress, and Health 2013: Protecting and Promoting Total Worker Health™ Conference, Los Angeles, California.

This study examines the role of recovery status in the relationship between substance use disorder (SUD) counselor’s perception of professional stigma and subsequent burnout, theoretically grounded in social identity theory. Using survey data from 591 SUD counselors, moderated regression analysis indicated that recovery experience buffers the negative effects of perceived stigma on emotional exhaustion, but not depersonalization. These findings contribute to literature on identity development and burnout, as direct personal experience appears to contribute to professional identity, building resilience against threats. This study may thus guide future research on identity development and stress resilience

  • Eby, L. T., Laschober, T. C., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2013, April).Rumination propensity and work-nonwork conflict: Can recovery experiences help? Symposium paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Conference, Houston, TX.
  • Brown, B. L., Eby, L. T., & George, K.  (2013, April). Examining the effects of relationships and commitment on professional stigma. In Invisible stigmas and dirty work: New frontiers in stigma research. Brown, B. L. & Eby, L.T. (chairs). Symposium presentation at Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP) conference, Houston, TX.

Perceptions of professional stigma consist of the social devaluation of a specific profession or occupation based on certain characteristics of the job or populations with which the professional works (often referred to as “dirty work”).  Despite an abundance of anecdotal evidence, little is known about professional stigma through an empirical lens. The current research examines the effects of co-worker and supervisor relationships, as well as affective organizational and professional commitment, in the development of feelings of stigma towards one’s own profession. Furthermore, the interactive effects of personal stigma in the form of alcohol/drug recovery status are also examined.  Data were collected across two time points separated by one year from 748 substance abuse counselors.  Path analysis was conducted using MPlus to test research hypotheses. Findings show that both forms of affective commitment (i.e., organizational and professional) serve as partial mediators between one’s supervisory relationship and perceptions of professional stigma.  Only affective organizational commitment was shown to be a partial mediator between one’s co-worker relationships and perceptions of professional stigma.  Additionally, examination of recovery status showed that the supported findings for partial mediation only hold for substance-abuse counselors who are personally in recovery.  Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  • Provolt, L., Kinkade, K.M., & Eby, L.T. (2013, April).  Professional stigma: how it impacts identity salience and professional commitment. Poster presented at the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology Annual Conference, Houston, Texas.

This study examined the relationship between identity and organizational commitment. Based upon Social Identity Theory, this study found evidence to suggest recovery identity salience among recovering substance abuse counselors was positively related to professional commitment, and that perceptions of stigma surrounding the substance abuse field moderated this relationship.

  • Brown, B. L. & Eby, L. T. (2013, April). Understanding the positive effects of mortality awareness on work relationships. Poster presentation  at Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP) conference, Houston, TX.

How does analytically thinking about one’s own mortality affect relationships at work?  We examined death reflection as a predictor of closer relationships in the workplace among a sample of employees working in a death-salient occupation.  The relationships between mortality awareness, career calling, and generative work relationships were investigated among employees working as substance-abuse counselors.  As expected, career calling fully mediated the relationship between mortality awareness and patient attachment. Career calling also partially mediated the relationship between mortality awareness and supervisor relational identity. Our findings highlight how beliefs about death relate to both feelings about one’s career and the generative relationships individuals develop with patients, coworkers and supervisors. The large number of people working in death-salient occupations (e.g., emergency responders, substance abuse counselors) and the very limited empirical research on the topic highlight the importance and timeliness of the study of death at work.

  • Brown, B. L., Eby, L. T., & George, K.  (2013, March). Investigating the roles of work relationships and  affective commitment on the development of professional stigma. Paper presentation at Psi Chi conference, Athens, GA.

Perceptions of professional stigma consist of the social devaluation of a specific profession or occupation based on certain characteristics of the job or populations with which the professional works (often referred to as “dirty work”).  Despite an abundance of anecdotal evidence, little is known about professional stigma through an empirical lens. The current research examines the effects of co-worker and supervisor relationships, as well as affective organizational and professional commitment, in the development of feelings of stigma towards one’s own profession. Furthermore, the interactive effects of personal stigma in the form of alcohol/drug recovery status are also examined.  Data were collected across two time points separated by one year from 748 substance abuse counselors.  Path analysis was conducted using MPlus to test research hypotheses. Findings show that both forms of affective commitment (i.e., organizational and professional) serve as partial mediators between one’s supervisory relationship and perceptions of professional stigma.  Only affective organizational commitment was shown to be a partial mediator between one’s co-worker relationships and perceptions of professional stigma.  Additionally, examination of recovery status showed that the supported findings for partial mediation only hold for substance-abuse counselors who are personally in recovery.  Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  • Laschober, T. C., & Eby, L. T. (2012, October). A longitudinal study of clinicians’ perceptions of the implementation of New York State’s 100% tobacco free regulations. Paper presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, New York, NY.

In 2008, New York State required all state-funded or state-certified substance abuse treatment organizations to be 100% tobacco-free. The current study examined clinicians’ perceptions of the implementation of the tobacco-free regulation approximately 10-12 months (Time 1) and 20-24 months (Time 2) after the regulation went into effect. It also investigated whether clinicians’ commitment to change and use of OASAS-provided resources at Time 1 predicts perceptions of implementation at Time 2. Longitudinal data were obtained from 287 clinicians working in 16 treatment organizations. Clinicians noted a mean implementation of 5.60 patient regulations (0-10 scale), 2.33 visitor regulations (0-8 scale), and 6.66 employee regulations (0-12 scale) at Time 1. With the exception of an increase in implementation of visitor regulations, perceptions of implementation of patient and employee regulations did not significantly increase from Time 1 to Time 2. Only commitment to change consistently predicted perceived implementation of the regulations at Time 2.

  • Brown, B. L., Sauer, J. B., & Eby, L. T. (2012, October). A three-wave longitudinal examination of perceived organizational support, affective professional commitment, personal recovery status and turnover intentions among substance abuse professionals. Symposium paper presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, New York, NY.

Turnover is a problem in addiction treatment. Research on other professionals finds that both perceived organizational support and professional commitment predict turnover intentions. However, little longitudinal research exists and no research investigates these associations in addiction treatment. Using a three-wave study we examine the mediating effect of affective professional commitment on the organizational support – turnover intentions link. We also examine recovery status as a moderator. Data were collected from 353 addiction treatment professionals at three time periods. Results indicate that organizational support predicts subsequent turnover intentions (β = -.39, p.<001) and affective professional commitment partially mediates this relationship (β = -.32, p.<001). The model held for counselors but not clinical supervisors. Counselor recovery status moderated the perceived support- commitment link. Findings suggest increasing organizational support reduces turnover intentions via professional commitment, particularly for counselors not in recovery.

  • Sleight, R. E., Curtis, S. L., & Eby, L. T. (2012, October). Where do they go from here? Post-turnover employment decisions in substance abuse treatment. Symposium paper presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, New York, NY.

Turnover is a problem in the substance abuse treatment (SAT) field, particularly when clinicians exit not just the organization, but the profession as well. Voluntary clinician turnover ranges from 25%-31% by the second year of employment to 47% by the fourth year of employment. Supervisor turnover is 19-23% annually. The present study uses longitudinal quantitative and qualitative data from MERITS I to identify 219 clinicians that voluntarily exited SAT organizations. Leavers were classified as either organizational turnover (n = 120 or 55%) or professional turnover (n = 99 or 45%). A content analysis will identify specific reasons for turnover among these two groups of leavers. A better understanding of both professional and organizational turnover may reduce costs, increase organizational efficiency, and improve patient care.

  • Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. (2012, October). Counselor attitudes towards smoking cessation programs and the correlates of assisting patients with quitting smoking in drug and alcohol treatment centers. Paper presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, New York, NY.

The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for a co-occurring substance abuse condition is very high, between 70%-95%. However, many drug treatment facilities do not encourage smoking cessation during treatment, even though patients often show interest in quitting smoking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the beliefs of those counselors treating patients in substance abuse treatment facilities. These facilities were randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. There were are total number 1054 counselors interviewed in 1000 separate substance abuse centers. Only half (50.3%) assisted in helping patients quit smoking. Interestingly, there were no differences in beliefs of those who helped and did not help when examining “for patients who smoke, smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to their readiness to quit” (p=0.975). However, those who assisted patients in quitting smoking were more likely than those who did not to agree: that smoking cessation interventions should be an integral function of their treatment program (p<0.001); and that smoking cessation counseling is as important as counseling about other drugs for patients in the treatment program (p<0.001). Further, those who assist in smoking cessation are less likely to agree that smoking cessation programs negatively affect attendance to their treatment program (p=0.004). These results suggest that most counselors agree that smoking should indeed be tailored to the patient’s readiness to quit, but there are significant differences in those who provide smoking cessation assistance. This study shows that smoking cessation programs should be an integral part of drug and alcohol treatment.

  • Muilenburg, J. L., Eby, L. T., Conway, K. M., Barnett, J., Proctor, C., Coffman, R. (2012, October). Counselor attitudes towards evidence-based treatments in drug and alcohol treatment centers. Presentation at the American Public Health Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Research to practice continues to be a challenge when providing evidence-based programs to the public. This study investigates the attitudes concerning evidence-based practices of substance abuse counselors in drug and alcohol treatment centers. Data were collected using online surveys administered to 1054 counselors using the SAMHSA database for substance abuse centers. Most counselors do not feel strongly about using new techniques to treat patients in substance abuse treatment centers. Only 17.1% strongly agree they like to use new types of therapy/interventions to help their patients. 18.2% strongly agree they are willing to try new types of therapy/interventions even if they have to follow a treatment manual. 19.9% strongly agree they are willing to use different types of therapy/interventions developed by researchers. 18.8% strongly agree they would try a new therapy/intervention even if it were different from what they are used to doing. Further, most are indifferent about the statement “I know better than academic researchers how to care for my patients” (49.1%) and feel similarly about the statement “clinical experience is more important than using manualized therapy/interventions” (51.1%). Most disagree that research-based treatments/interventions are not clinically useful (55.2%). Researchers and practitioners are at a crossroads. Implementation of evidence-based research is essential for changing behaviors and having standard treatments. We must find a way to move practitioners from being ambivalent or neutral towards new and evidence- based therapies to helping researchers implement, evaluate, and modify as needed. Further, research on practitioner’s trust of the academic environment could be invaluable.

  • Conway, K. M., Muilenburg, J. L., Barnett, J., Proctor, C., Coffman, R., Eby, L. (2012, October). How do substance abuse counselors treat smoking addiction in drug or alcohol addicted patients? Presentation at the American Public Health Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Research has shown that the prevalence of smoking among patients seeking treatment at substance abuse treatment facilities is between 70-95%. Although some patients may be interested in quitting smoking, many facilities do not encourage smoking cessation during their substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the pharmacological and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation at these facilities. Data was collected using web-based surveys administered to 1054 substance abuse counselors from over 1000 treatment facilities across the United States. These facilities were randomly selected from the SAMHSA database. Counselors reported that facilities offer treatment for nicotine in the forms of the patch (41%), gum (25.7%), lozenge (15.8%), inhaler (5.7%), and nasal spray (3.9%). Additionally, 31.7% had Bupropion SR available, Varenicline (21.1%), Clonidine (13.9%), and Nortriptyline (7.5%). There are also a number of behavioral treatments for smoking cessation. While 85.5% of counselors ask if patients currently smoke, only 45.6% advise patients to quit smoking, 62.5% assess patient willingness to quit, and 44.8% assist in quitting by developing a quit plan or arranging for counseling for smoking cessation. Additionally, 64.4% of these facilities provide self-help materials and 69.4% have additional community resource referrals for smoking cessation. In terms of individual counseling, 63.5% offer individual counseling that focuses on social support and 71.8% provide individual counseling that focuses on problem solving/skills training. It is important to examine these pharmacological and behavioral treatments so that we can better document recovery rates and how they can be influenced.

  • Barnett, J., Proctor, C., Muilenburg, J. L., Conway, K. M., Coffman, R., Eby, L. (2012, October). Substance abuse counselors and tobacco knowledge: the more they smoke the less they know? Presentation at the American Public Health Conference, San Francisco, CA.

The purpose of this study is to investigate smoking and tobacco knowledge as well as use behaviors of substance abuse counselors. Data were collected using online surveys administered October 2010 – August 2011 to 1054 counselors from substance abuse treatment facilities randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. Results indicate there was not a significant difference in tobacco health knowledge between “ever smokers” and “never smokers”. However, “current smokers” were less knowledgeable about tobacco than counselors who did not currently smoke (p = 0.046). The more days a month counselors smoked, the less they knew about tobacco (p = 0.041). Counselors who smoked 20-29 days or all 30 days during the past month had the lowest mean scores on the tobacco knowledge index (18.26 and 18.48 out of a possible 25, respectively). Interestingly, counselors who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days had higher tobacco knowledge scores than counselors who planned to quit more than 30 days later. This information may indicate that counselors in the contemplation stage who plan to quit smoking in the next 30 days may seek out tobacco knowledge. These findings are important as we explore counselor-patient relationships in substance abuse treatment facilities, particularly counselor willingness to provide smoking cessation treatments to patients. The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for co-occurring substance abuse is between 70 – 95%, and it is vital to understand the relationship between counselor tobacco knowledge and behavior and patient smoking behavior.

  • Proctor, C., Barnett, Muilenburg, J. L., Conway, K. M., Coffman, R., & Eby, L. (2012, October). Perpetuating a problem: smoking behaviors of counselors in recovery. Presentation at the American Public Health Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Research has shown that smoking cessation interventions during addiction treatments enhance chances of patients’ sobriety; however, at many treatment facilities tobacco use is viewed as a less harmful alternative to alcohol or illicit drug use. Previous research has shown that health professionals who smoke have the potential to unintentionally affect the smoking behaviors of others. This study will examine tobacco use among counselors in recovery. Data were collected using online surveys administered October 2010-August 2011 to 1054 counselors from randomly selected substance abuse treatment facilities across the nation. The study found that 42.2% of counselors were in recovery. Of counselors in recovery, 86.8% had smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetimes compared to 42.4% for counselors not in recovery (p=.000). Counselors in recovery also smoked more in the past 30 days, with 23.1% having smoked all 30 days, compared to 7.0% for counselors not in recovery (p=.000). Overall counselors in recovery were 9 times more likely to have ever smoked or be a current smoker compared to those who were not in recovery. The lack of smoking cessation practices at substance abuse facilities continues to be a problem. Counselors who are in recovery from other substance abuse problems have been through a system that virtually ignores nicotine as a drug; therefore, they continue to perpetuate tobacco use.

  • Sparks, T. E., George, K. E., Kinkade, K. M., & Eby, L. T. (2012, August). An examination of withdrawal reactions to patient incivility. In Lomeli, L. C. & Miner, K.M. (Chairs), Explorations into the conundrums and complexities of workplace mistreatment. Symposium paper presented at the Annual Academy of Management Meeting, Boston, MA.

This study utilizes a sample of substance use disorder counselors to examine the impact of client incivility on counselor depersonalization (i.e., psychologically distancing oneself from one’s clients), and in turn, how depersonalization impacts counselor turnover intentions. Furthermore, we examine whether the personal recovery status of the counselor has an impact on the strength or nature of these relationships. That is, we hypothesized that counselors who are personally in recovery are more likely to personally identify with their clients (i.e., social identity theory), and thus may exhibit different types of reactions to incivility. We examined these relationships using path analyses in Mplus with data collected at two points in time, one year apart. Client incivility and recovery status data were collected in year one, and depersonalization and turnover intention data were collected in year two. Findings indicate that whereas client incivility had similar, positive effects in terms of triggering depersonalization regardless of counselor recovery status, depersonalization was a significant predictor of turnover intentions for only those counselors who were not personally in recovery. Thus, it is evident that identifying with one’s clients does not necessarily influence whether or to what extent counselors distance themselves from hostile clients; however, it does impact the extent to which depersonalization predicts withdrawal and distancing from the organization as a whole (i.e., intentions to turnover).

  • Sauer, J. B., Beck, S. S., Siminovsky, A. B., Hoffman, B. J., Eby,  L. T., & Sparks, T. E. (2012, April). Negative mentoring as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Poster presentation at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, San Diego, California.

In the past, mentoring research has mainly focused on the antecedents and consequences of positive mentoring. However, little research has examined negative mentoring in terms of its potential consequences on protégé performance. This study examined how negative mentoring (poor dyadic fit and distancing/manipulative behavior) impacts protégés’ levels of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and whether this relationship is mediated by protégés’ procedural justice perceptions. The results found that distancing/manipulative behavior were negatively related to OCB, but poor dyadic fit was not. Furthermore, poor dyadic fit was positively related to CWB, but distancing/manipulative behavior was not. Additionally, procedural justice perceptions mediated the relationship between distancing/manipulative behavior and OCB. However, procedural justice perceptions did neither mediate the relationship between poor dyadic fit and OCB, nor between poor dyadic fit and CWB, nor between distancing/manipulative behavior and CWB.

  • Kinkade, K., Morelli, N., Downey, S., Hoffman, B., & Eby, L. (2012, April).  What if they don’t leave?  Prolonged turnover intentions and CWB.  Poster presented at the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology Annual Conference, San Diego, California.

Employee turnover is expensive for organizations, and turnover intentions are an important predictor of actual turnover. However, this study aims to determine the predictive capacity of prolonged turnover intentions to CWB, and explore the moderating effects of perceived employment alternatives, organizational support, and organizational constraints. Survey data from 320 counselors from the substance use disorder (SUD) treatment field, over a period of two years, were analyzed. The results suggest that individuals who exhibit prolonged turnover intentions are more likely to commit CWBs, and this effect was moderated by the presence of organizational constraints.

  • Eby, L., & Rothrauff-Laschober, T. (2012, April). Negative mentoring experiences and work-to-nonwork conflict: a longitudinal examination. Paper presented in the symposium “Leaders and the work-family interface: They provide more than support” (R. Matthews & M. Mills, Co-Chairs). Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.Eby SIOP April 2012

  • Sparks, T. E., Eckart, R. L. & Eby, L. T. (2012, April). Weighing in on the JD-R model with relative weights. Poster session presented at the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology Conference, San Diego, CA.

Relying on the Job Demands-Resources model, we examined the relative utility of job resources, personal resources, and job demands in predicting burnout and work engagement using relative weights analysis.  Personal resources were the strongest predictors of the dimensions of engagement, followed by job resources, and finally job demands.  Organization-based self-esteem was a particularly critical personal resource, while perceived organizational support, self determination, and attachment to coworkers were important job resources. Conversely, job demands were the strongest predictors of burnout. Specifically, role overload was the strongest predictor of emotional exhaustion, while conflict with clients was the strongest predictor of depersonalization.

  • Sauer, J., Beck, S., Siminovsky, A., Hoffman, B., Eby, L., & Sparks, T. (2012, April). Don’t let me down: negative mentoring and protégé performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

This study examined the mediating relationship between negative mentoring relationships and protégé performance through procedural justice perceptions. The effects on subordinate counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression.

  • Maher, C., & Eby, L. (2012, April). Career calling, engagement, and positive spillover. Paper presented in the symposium “Positive psychology and the work-family interface: Bridging the gap” (T. Shortridge & H. Odle-Dusseau, Co-Chairs). Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.Eby, L., & Butts, M. (2012, April). Paying it forward: The effect of mentoring on protégé OCB. Paper presented in the symposium “Beyond task performance: New research directions on OCB and CWB” (B. Hoffman & L. Eby, Co-Chairs). Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA. Eby & Butts
  • Curtis, S., Eby, L. T., & Kinkade, K. (2012, April). Do I fit: Differential predictors of organizational vs. professional turnover. Paper presented in the symposium “Starting anew: Research on decisions to change careers” (A. Ryan, Chair). Annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA. Curtis, Eby, Kinkade SIOP 2012 Presentatio
  • Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. T. (2012, March). Smoking cessation programs in substance abuse treatment facilities: What are we doing? Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 18th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for a co-occurring substance abuse condition is very high, between 70%-95%. However, many drug treatment facilities do not encourage smoking cessation during treatment, even though patients often show interest in quitting smoking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the treatments and methods used in providing smoking cessation resources to patients in a substance abuse treatment facility.  Data were collected from in-depth telephone interviews administered to 1005 program administrators. The substance abuse treatment facilities were randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. There was not an abundance of pharmacological treatments available for patients.  Program administrators reported that only 24.2% of substance abuse treatment facilities administer the nicotine patch, 17.5% gum, 10.5% lozenge, 2.9% nasal spray, 16% bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin), 12.5% verenicline (Chantix), 6.7% clonidine (Catapres), and 5.0% nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor).  In terms to behavioral treatments, there is a range of availability.  Specific to smoking, most programs have some sort of self-help materials (76.9%) followed by individual counseling focused on problem solving skills (38.3%), individual counseling focusing on social support and smoking cessation (37.5%), four or more counseling session on smoking (32.1%),  the “Five As” (30.5%), group counseling (29.4%), telephone quitlines (16.2%).  A large amount provide the patient with a community resource referral (72.7%).  Only 22.5% combine counseling and medication treatment.  With the behavioral research in smoking cessation supporting the practice of behavioral therapy along with pharmacological interventions, research needs to focus on the barriers to providing smoking cessation treatment in substance abuse facilities.  Further, strategies to evaluate effective treatments in these facilities are encouraged.

  • Sparks, T. E., Kinkade, K., & Eby. L.T. (2011, October). Turning tragedy into meaning: An examination of the impact of patient death on substance abuse counselor attitudes toward work and life. Poster presented at the Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, Fairfax, VA.

The present study examines actual turnover using longitudinal data from a geographically dispersed sample of treatment organizations. Data were collected from 740 counselors employed at 86 free-standing treatment programs, affiliated with 27 treatment organizations throughout the United States. At Time 1 we obtained lists of all full-time counselors employed at each treatment organization. One year later (Time 2) we obtained the following information on each counselor from the Time 1 list: (1) still employed at treatment organization (yes or no), (2) if no longer employed, was counselor terminated (yes or no), and (3) reason for counselor departure from the treatment organization (open-ended response). The overall counselor turnover rate was 19.5%. Eighty-two percent of those who left their treatment organization did so voluntarily, 16% left involuntarily, and no information was provided on the remaining 2% who were no longer employed. Open-ended data on the reason for departure were content analyzed. The most frequent higher-order reason for turnover was job-related. The most commonly reported reason for job-related turnover was a new job or other opportunity, followed by resignation. Counselor turnover is a problem in the field of substance abuse treatment, but perhaps not as serious as what has been suggested previously. Perhaps more importantly, most turnover is voluntary. This is problematic because as voluntary turnover increases, workforce performance decreases. The findings also shed light on the myriad of factors that contribute to counselor turnover.

  • Hurst, C. M., Butts, M., & Eby, L. T. (2011, November). Professional plateaus: Health and nonwork outcomes and impact of competence and control perceptions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Management Association, Savannah, GA.

Results of this study expanded the definition of a professional plateau to consider three career situations indicating a plateau (employment plateau, occupational plateau, and promotions). We examined the impact of professional plateaus on several health-related and nonwork outcomes. Occupational plateaus were negatively related to health satisfaction and nonwork satisfaction and promotions were positively related to emotional exhaustion. We also examined the moderating impact of perceived competence and perceived control. Results generally supported expected moderated relationships and demonstrated the benefits of perceived competence and perceived control.

  • Proctor, C., Barnett, J., Muilenburg, J., Conway, K., Motley, M. Coffman, R., Vashisht, S., & Eby, L. (2011, October). An examination of smoking cessation practices in substance abuse treatment facilities. Poster presented at American Public Health Association Conference, Washington D.C.

It is well documented that the prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for co-occurring substance abuse is between 70-95%; however, little is known about the quality of smoking cessation programs offered alongside substance abuse treatment and the extent to which counselors or treatment staff use evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches to smoking cessation. This study will examine the current smoking cessation practices at substance abuse treatment facilities across the United States. Data were collected from in-depth telephone interviews administered to 226 program administrators. The substance abuse treatment facilities were randomly selected using the SAMSHA database. Program administrators reported that 81.3% of substance abuse treatment facilities identify smokers at intake, but only 25.6% have a dedicated staff for smoking cessation. In addition, 56.3% of surveyed facilities allow smoking in their program, and 61.9% do not offer EBT for services. It was found that only 30.4% provide counselor training for smoking cessation, 48.2% provide resources to counselors for smoking cessation treatments, 24.2% provide clinical supervision on smoking cessation treatments, and only 5.8% assess smoking cessation treatment in staff performance evaluations. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the treatment facilities discourage clinical staff from smoking. Despite low numbers of facilities offering smoking cessation programs, 71.6% of program administrators believe that smoking cessation interventions will increase a patient’s chance of sobriety. It is important to continue research on changes in service availability in treatment programs, so we can identify the organizational and policy factors that predict the availability, implementation, and sustainability of EBTs for smoking.

  • Muilenburg, J. L., Eby, L. T., & Conway, K. M. (2011, October).  Substance abuse counselor beliefs and barriers about smoking cessation programs within drug abuse treatment facilities. American Public Health Association, 139th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

The prevalence of smoking among individuals seeking treatment for a co-occurring substance abuse condition is very high, between 70%-95%. However, many drug treatment facilities do not encourage smoking cessation during treatment, even though patients often show interest in quitting smoking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the beliefs of those counselors treating patients in substance abuse treatment facilities. These facilities were randomly selected using the SAMHSA database. On-line surveys were completed by 150 counselors. Most respondents were female (61.8%), White (81.4%) and have an average age of 44. Most counselors agree that smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to a patient’s readiness to quit (61.5%), that smoking cessation should be an integral part of the treatment program (51.1%), and that treating tobacco addiction is as important as treating other drugs (43.9%). However, the clinicians are neutral on whether or not patient attendance would be affected (35.6%). Further, counselors were not concerned with financial constraints related to the amount of smoking services available (35.6%), incorporating smoking cessation into treatment planning (33.1%), or supporting activities related to smoking cessation (44.1%). However, there was agreement that there are financial constraints for training and educational opportunities in smoking cessation for counselors (35.7%). This study indicates that not only are counselors willing to treat tobacco addiction along with other substances, but they also do not view financial constraints as a barrier. Policy changes in substance abuse treatment centers could change to support the counselors’ willingness to provide smoking cessation to drug addicted patients.

  • Motley, M.*, Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. T. (2011, October). Determining the role of organizational policy in smoking cessation services and attitudes about smoking culture among staff at addiction treatment centers. American Public Health Association, 139th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

The importance of smoking cessation services and attitudes about smoking culture vary among addiction treatment centers in the US. This study investigates the impact that organizational policy towards staff smoking has on the overall attitudes about smoking among clinical staff. The data was collected from telephone interviews from 222 program administrators throughout the US. The substance abuse facilities were randomly selected using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration database. We asked administrators “Are clinical staff discouraged from smoking?” Most administrators said their staff was discouraged from smoking (68.9%). Those centers who responded that smoking was discouraged were less likely to view smoking as an accepted part of staff culture (p<0.001). Further, program administrators at those centers were more likely to perceive smoking cessation as an important issue in the successful treatment of other substance abuse problems (p<0.001), and staff are more likely to have interest in providing patients with smoking cessation treatments (p<0.024). Administrators at centers that discourage staff smoking are less likely to believe the notion that allowing patients to continue their smoking facilitates successful treatment of their primary substance abuse issues (p<0.007). This study contributes to the idea that a staff that is discouraged from smoking is likely to have a positive perception of the importance and effectiveness of smoking cessation services in addiction treatment centers.

  • Vashisht, S.*, Coffman, R.*, Motley, M.*, Barnett, J.*, Proctor, C.*, Conway, K. M., Eby, L. T., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2011, October). Impact of smoking programs in substance abuse treatment facilities: Do we practice what we preach? American Public Health Association, 139th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

Smoking cessation in substance abuse treatment facilities has been shown to increase sobriety for those patients in treatment for alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if those facilities with smoking cessation programs actually differ in system-level support for smoking cessation. In-depth telephone interviews were used to collect data from 226 program administrators at substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The treatment centers were randomly selected from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) database. 63.8% of programs reported they have some sort of therapy primarily dedicated to smoking cessation within their treatment center. Those who have a primary treatment are more likely than those who do not to identify all smokers at intake (OR=2.89; p=0.002), provide counselor training on smoking cessation treatments (OR=20.61, p=0.002), provide counselor resources for smoking cessation treatments (OR=12.69, p<0.001), provide clinical supervision on smoking cessation treatments (OR=21.37, p<0.001), have a dedicated staff to provide smoking cessation treatments (OR=8.21, p<0.001), assess smoking cessation treatment in staff evaluations (OR=1.64, p<0.007), and provide evidence based treatments as services (OR=46.25, p<0.001). There are an increasing number of substance abuse facilities turning to smoking cessation as a part of treatment. This trend might indicate the increased importance of providing smoking cessation programs for drug and alcohol addicted patients.

  • Coffman, R.*, Motley, M.*, Vashisht, S.*, Barnett, J.*, Proctor, C.*, Conway, K. M., Eby, L. T., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2011, October). Perceived social norms of smoking culture in substance abuse treatment facilities. American Public Health Association, 139th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

Oftentimes people’s behavior is greatly impacted by the prevailing social norms of their surrounding culture and environment. This is especially true with smoking behaviors in drug treatment centers. The purpose of this study is to investigate smoking culture in drug treatment centers. Data were collected from in-depth telephone interviews administered to 226 program administrators. The substance abuse treatment facilities were randomly selected using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Association database. Less than half of the administrators strongly disagree that smoking (42%) is an accepted part of the staff culture at their treatment program, that smoking and tobacco use are not important issues (38.5%), and that there is not enough time to add smoking cessation activities to their protocol (22.6%). Only a quarter of the administrators (24.8%) strongly disagree that allowing patients to continue their tobacco habits facilitates successful treatment of their substance abuse issues, and only 14.6% strongly disagree that their staff does not have the skills to provide smoking cessation treatments to their patients. Further, only 19.0% strongly disagree that their staff does not have interest in providing patients with smoking cessation treatments. About 23% strongly agree that it is hard to be reimbursed for staff time spent on patients’ smoking cessation. It is vital to stay informed of the smoking cultures in drug treatment centers across the country, as it can help us to better understand the relationship between smoking cessation and primary substance abuse issues of the patients.

  • Conway, K. M., Barnett, J.*, Proctor, C.*, Coffman, R.*, Motley ,M.*, Vashisht, S.*, Eby, L. T., & Muilenburg, J. L. (2011, October). Smoking cessation within substance abuse treatment centers: Does a staff dedicated to smoking cessation really make a difference? American Public Health Association, 139th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

There are different schools of thought as to the advantages of including smoking cessation in substance abuse treatment facilities. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between substance abuse treatment centers that have a staff dedicated to smoking cessation and those who do not. Using randomly selected substance abuse treatment centers from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration database, we collected data from 226 program administrators across the United States by conducting in-depth phone interviews. We concluded that substance abuse treatment centers that have a dedicated staff to smoking cessation are more likely to identify smokers at intake (p<0.028), assess smoking cessation treatment in staff performance evaluations (p<0.001), provide evidence-based treatment as services (p<0.001), and provide counselor training (p<0.001), resources (p<0.001), and clinical supervision (p<0.001) on smoking cessation treatment. From this study, we have found that having a staff dedicated to provide smoking cessation treatment is associated with a higher level of system-level support for smoking cessation within substance abuse treatment programs. We believe that having a dedicated staff to smoking cessation can not only increase the smoking cessation efforts for people with co-occurring substance abuse issues, but can also increase the overall sobriety of these individuals.

  • Barnett, J.*, Proctor, C.*, Muilenburg, J .L., Conway, K. M., Eby, L. T., Motley, M.*, Coffman, R.*, &Vashisht, S.* (2011, October).  Influences of financial resources on system-level support of smoking cessation in substance abuse treatment programs. American Public Health Association, 139th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

A perceived lack of financial resources in substance abuse treatment programs is strongly linked with the absence or very limited existence of system-level support for smoking cessation. In-depth telephone interviews were used to collect data from 226 program administrators at substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The treatment centers were randomly selected from the SAMHSA database. Nearly 90% of program administrators reported that no or very limited financial resources exist within their treatment programs to support smoking cessation. These programs are less likely to: provide evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation as services, provide counselor training on or resources for smoking cessation treatments, and provide clinical supervision on smoking cessation treatments (p=0.001). The percentage of programs with no/very limited funding that lack specific tenants of system-level support for smoking cessation is very high. For example, of the programs lacking dedicated staff to provide smoking cessation, 93.4% have no/very limited financial resources for smoking cessation. Additionally, of the programs that do not discourage clinical staff from smoking, 89.8% have no/very limited financial resources for smoking cessation. This study shows that financial resource availability for smoking cessation and the existence of system-level support for smoking cessation are strongly linked. It is important to continue investigating this topic because allocation of resources to smoking cessation programs may increase treatment of this addiction in patients being treated for other substance addictions.

  • Eby, L. T. & Butts, M. M. (2011, August). Understanding relational problems in mentoring: A longitudinal, dyadic perspective. In D. Chandler, S. Dobrow, & W. Murphy (Co-Chairs). The yin and yang of mentoring: Exploring the continuum of mentoring relationships and experiences. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, San Antonio, TX.

Using longitudinal data from a sample of in-tact, matched mentor-protege pairs we examined the dynamic aspects of relational problems. Our results support the idea that when protégés (mentors) report relational problems, their mentors (protégés) are also likely to report problems in the mentorship. We obtained this effect for both cross-source synchronous (static) and cross-source lagged correlations. This suggests that perhaps “bad begets bad” in mentoring relationships. We also found stronger synchronous mentor-protégé correlations at time 2 than at time 1. This suggests that the continuation of relational problems over time may breed stronger reciprocal bad behavior by mentors and protégés. Finally, the same-source autocorrelations provide some initial evidence that relational problems are not necessarily static over time. Our findings are an important first step in understanding the dynamic nature of mentoring relationships over time and the influence of those dynamics on each respective member of the mentoring relationship (i.e., mentors and protégés). Moreover, we extend research on mentoring by moving beyond single-source, cross-sectional frameworks to embrace the relational perspective of mentoring as a complicated developmental process that unfolds over time.

  • Eby, L. T., & Rothrauff-Laschober, T. C. (2011, July). Negative relational exchanges at work: Downstream effects on work-to-nonwork conflict. Paper presented at the IV International Conference of Work and Family, Barcelona, Spain.

Three types of negative relational exchanges at work are examined in relation to work-to-nonwork conflict, along with the mediating role of strain. The relative importance of negative exchanges in predicting strain is also examined. Each type of negative relational exchange is positively related to work-to-nonwork conflict. Strain mediates the relationship between negative patient and coworker exchanges and work-to-nonwork conflict. Differences in the relative importance of each negative exchange in predicting strain are also found.

  • Rothrauff-Laschober, T.C., Kinkade, K., & Eby, L. T. (2011, May). Antecedents of supervisory mentoring support for reducing protégé work-nonwork conflict. Paper presented as part of a symposium at the International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health, Orlando, FL.

Based on social exchange theory, this study examined antecedents of supervisors’ mentoring support for reducing their protégés’ work-nonwork conflict. Survey data were collected from 412 matched mentor-protégé dyads. As hypothesized, supervisors’ evaluation of relational costs, relational benefits, and overall relationship quality were related to protégés’ perceived mentoring support. In turn, greater support was negatively related to protégés’ work-nonwork conflict. These findings suggest that protégés and supervisors should be encouraged to create positive social exchanges to reduce protégés’ work-nonwork conflict.

  • Eby, L. T., Burk, H., Sauer, J. (2011, May). Predictors of mentors’ negative experiences with protégés: A dyadic study.  Paper presentation at the 15th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

While the consequences of mentors’ negative experiences with protégés are documented, we know nothing about what predicts these experiences. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining protégé characteristics as predictors of mentor reports of negative experiences. Correlational results indicated that both protégé personality (lower agreeableness) and protégé contextual factors (lower procedural and distributive justice perceptions, higher organizational cynicism) were related to mentor reports of greater negative relational experiences. In predicting destructive relational patterns, protégé agreeableness, protégé neuroticism, and distributive justice accounted for unique variance. For interpersonal problems, only protégé agreeableness explained unique variance. Finally, both protégé organizational cynicism and protégé agreeableness contributed uniquely to the prediction of mentor reports of protégé performance problems.

  • Eby, L. T., Maher, C., & Sauer, J. (2010, October). What predicts actual turnover among substance abuse treatment workforce. Poster presented at the Addiction Health Services Conference, Lexington, Kentucky.

Employee turnover is a major concern for substance abuse treatment providers (Ducharme, Knudsen, & Roman, 2008; McLellan, Carise, & Kleber, 2003. However, no longitudinal research has examined whether pay-related variables predict actual turnover. Our study found that both extrinsic (salary, pay satisfaction) and intrinsic (job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, autonomy, challenge) factors were negatively related to counselor turnover. Interestingly, only intrinsic factors (i.e., perceived organizational support, challenge) were negatively related to clinical supervisor turnover. While our results support the notion that pay-related variables are predictive of turnover among counselors, intrinsic factors also had a unique influence. Interestingly, for clinical supervisors only intrinsic factors were predictive of turnover. This highlights the importance of focusing both on pay issues for counselors and enhancing the quality of work life for both groups.

  • Eby, L. T., Burk, H. G., Vandenberg, B., & Kinkade, K. (2010, August). The physical work environment as a unique and neglected predictor of attitudinal strain. In Sparks, T. E. & Eby, L. T. (Co-Chairs) Workplace Features and Employee Wellbeing: An Occupational Health Perspective. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Montreal, Canada.

This study utilizes multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the predictive power of individual-level and group-level perceptions of the internal and external work environment on three attitudinal strain reactions (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions). Results indicate that even after accounting for role overload, perceived organizational constraints, and lack of coworker support, individual satisfaction with environmental design and the external work environment were significant predictors of job satisfaction, organization commitment, and turnover intentions. In addition, group-level perceptions of the external work environment were significant predictors of both organizational commitment and turnover intentions. These findings highlight the importance of considering both individual-level and group-level perceptions of the internal and external physical environment in efforts to enhance job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and reduce turnover intentions.

  • Sparks, T. E., Curtis, S. L., & Lance, C. E. (2010, August). A longitudinal examination of workplace mentoring functions as buffers against burnout. In Sparks, T. E. & Eby, L. T. (Co-Chairs) Workplace Features and Employee Wellbeing: An Occupational Health Perspective. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Montreal, Canada.

This paper uses latent growth modeling to explore how changes in mentoring relationships predict changes in two key dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, using three waves of matched data. While previous studies have endorsed mentoring as a potential antidote to stress, research has yet to address this relationship longitudinally. Findings demonstrate that changes in the primary functions of mentoring relationships, career support and psychosocial support, were significant predictors of change in two symptoms of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Thus, over time, mentoring relationships may reduce employee burnout.

  • Eby, L. T. (2010, April). Career calling as a protective factor in the experience of burnout for individuals working in stigmatized occupations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia.

This study evaluates career calling, or an individual’s sense that one’s work has a greater purpose in life as a protective factor for substance abuse counselors’ experience of burnout on the job. Results indicate that counselors with a stronger career calling are more likely to have their psychological needs for relatedness and competence met at work, which in turn reduces perceptions of depersonalization and burnout.

  • Eby, L. T., & Birkelbach, D. (2010, April). Predictors of OASAS implementation in NY State: A longitudinal investigation. Paper presented at the Quality of Behavioral Healthcare: A Drive for Change through Research, Clearwater Beach, Florida.

Data were collected from clinicians prior to the passage of the OASAS tobacco-free regulation and again 1 year later. Results indicate that the provision of more information about the pending regulation, greater perceived accountability, and the use of educational resources to aid with the transition predicted implementation extensiveness over time.

  • Eby, L. T., Sparks, T., & Evans, L. (2010, April). Positive and negative outcomes associated with going smoke-free in substance abuse treatment: The NY State experience. Paper presented at the NIDA Blending Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

In 2008 New York State (NYS) became the first to require all state-funded or state-certified addiction treatment programs to be 100% tobacco-free. The goal of creating healthier workplaces and fostering tobacco independence in clients is laudable and may yield positive effects. However, as with any organizational change effort, there may also be negative effects. This study examined the positive and negative consequences of the OASAS regulation one year after its implementation.

  • Curtis, S. L., Eby, L. T. & Butts, M. M. (2010, April). Mentoring as a means to fostering employee engagement. Symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, GA.

Employee engagement has received considerable attention in the practitioner literature as a driver of workforce productivity. We propose that mentoring relationships will provide the conditions necessary to foster engagement. It was found that both career-related and psychosocial mentoring behaviors are related to engagement, and that the provision of challenging assignments was the most influential mentoring function in predicting engagement.

  • Morrison, A., Lance, C. L., & Eby, L. T. (2010, April). Do mentor and protégé personality predict relationship quality? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia.

The current study investigates what makes formal mentoring relationships effective by examining the direct and interactive effects of protégé and mentor personality in the prediction of perceived relationship quality. Relationship quality was also examined as a possible mediator between mentor/protégé personality and certain protégé work attitudes.

  • Rothrauff, T. C., & Eby, L. T. (2010, April). Implementation of clinical practice guidelines on tobacco cessation: Does counselors’ tenure in behavioral health matter? Poster presented at the Quality of Behavioral Healthcare: A Drive for Change through Research, Clearwater Beach, FL.

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of clinical practice guidelines on tobacco cessation among counselors (N = 615) working in Clinical Trials Network (CTN) affiliated substance abuse treatment programs. Additionally, we identified differences in implementation based on counselors’ tenure in the behavioral health field (0-5 years, 5-12 years, 12+ years). Guidelines are far from being implemented on a regular basis. Counselors with more experience rarely reported greater implementation of guidelines.

  • Sparks, T.E., & Burk, H.G. (2010, April). Coping with workplace burnout: The role of political skill. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, Atlanta,GA.

Most previous attempts at examining workplace burnout have looked primarily at environmental influences rather than individual difference variables. Our study seeks to examine the impact of the coping resource of political skill in mitigating the level of depersonalization experienced in a situation characterized by low coworker support, and how this effect may differ by gender. Results indicate that under conditions of low coworker support, males with high political skill experience less depersonalization; however, for women, political skill does not impact depersonalization. Findings have implications for employee training, selection, and development of occupational health promotion programs.

  • Wood, L. A., George, K. E., Maher, C. P., & Eby, L. T. (2009, November). A counterintuitive approach to CWB: Examining the health benefits of behaving badly. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Occupational Health and Stress, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

This study expands on traditional approaches to counterproductive work behavior (CWB) by examining the conditions under which CWB may have positive effects on health-related outcomes for those who engage in these behaviors. Results found that employees with lower job satisfaction did not experience better health or stress outcomes by engaging in CWB. Further, employees with high job satisfaction that engage in CWB see their health compromised. This suggests that CWB may not be an effective coping strategy for dealing with job stressors because there were no apparent health benefits.

  • Eby, L. T., & Baranik, L. (2009, November). The role of clinical supervisory relationships in understanding substance abuse counselors’ job satisfaction and burnout. Paper presented at the Work, Stress, and Health 2009: Global Concerns and Approaches Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Substance abuse counselors work in high stress jobs with limited resources, conflicting role objectives, and heavy caseloads. As such, in this occupation role overload and role conflict are major role stressors. Given the established link between role stressors and both job satisfaction and burnout it is important to understand how experiences in the work environment may either minimize or contribute to the experience of role stress. This study uses longitudinal data from a national study of the substance abuse treatment workforce to examine how experiences in clinical supervisory relationships relate to experienced role overload and role conflict and in turn, how these role stressors influence job satisfaction and burnout.

  • Eby, L. T., Burk, H., & Baranik, L. (2009, November). The physical work environment as an organizational stressor: Unique effects on employee strain reactions. Paper presented at the Work, Stress, and Health 2009: Global Concerns and Approaches Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

The impact of the physical work environment on employee physical and psychological outcomes is examined in this study. The results will serve to broaden the literature and empirically bridge connections between the physical work environment and employee outcomes. We seek to demonstrate that characteristics of the physical work environment predict employee physical and psychological health over and above other common role stressors.

  • Baranik, L. E., Scharlau, E., Eby, L. T., & Hoffman, B. (2009, October). Feeling supported at work: Perceived organizational support and mentoring. Southern Management Association Proceedings.

We suggested that protégés may develop perceptions about their organization through interactions with their mentors and that these perceptions influence their affective commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Thus, we proposed that career and psychosocial mentoring would be related to perceived organizational support, which would be related to positive work attitudes, which would negatively relate to turnover intentions. Structural equation modeling indicated that the model fit the data. However, the results suggest that POS only mediates the relationship between psychosocial mentoring and work attitudes, not career mentoring. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  • Eby, L.  T., Maher, C., & Burk, H. (2009, October). How serious of a problem is counselor turnover in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual turnover. Poster presented at the annual Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, San Francisco, CA.

In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008-2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment.

  • Rothrauff, T. C., & Eby, L. T. (October, 2009). Adoption of tobacco cessation medications in substance abuse treatment centers. Paper presented at the annual Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, San Francisco, CA.

We used data from the 2008 Managing Effective Relationships in Treatment Services (MERITS I) project to assess the adoption of chantix, buproprion, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Data were collected in person via paper-and-pencil surveys from 658 counselors and 26 administrators in Clinical Trials Network (CTN) affiliated community treatment programs. The adoption of chantix was reported by 16% of counselors, buproprion by 11%, and NRTs by 27% of counselors. Logistic regression models with correlated data showed that 12-step-based centers were less likely to adopt chantix and NRTs than other centers. Non-smoking policies for employees negatively predicted the adoption of chantix and NRTs. Finally, counselors who smoked were less likely than non-smokers to report the adoption of chantix.

  • Hurst, C. S., Eby, L. T., & Butts, M. M. (August, 2009). Conversations about health: Supervisor Health and Safety Support scale development and validation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago, IL.

Two studies were conducted to develop a psychometrically sound measure of supervisor support for health and safety. We identified three dimensions of supervisor support (physical health, psychological health, safety) and used Study 1 to develop items and establish content validity. In Study 2, we used CFA to establish the dimensionality of the new measure. Study 2 also provided criterion-related, convergent, and discriminant validity evidence of the measure using supervisor and subordinate data. The measure also had unique explanatory power in predicting work- and health-related outcomes over other stress-related variables. Findings and implications for stress theory and social support are discussed.

  • Baranik, L. E., Eby, L. T., Hurst, C. S., & Curtis, S. L. (April, 2009). Organizational support for mentoring: Aligning mentor and protégé expectations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

The current study adds to a small body of research examining the reciprocal influence process between mentors and protégés by using matched dyads to examine the combined effect of protégé and mentor perceived support for mentoring on perceptions of relational quality and mentoring received. Results show that high perceptions of support for clinical supervision from both the protégé and mentor perspectives predicted the highest levels of relationship quality. Also, the combination of high protégé perceptions of accountability in clinical supervision and low mentor perceptions of accountability were related to mentoring received.

  • Baranik, L. E., Morrison, A., & Eby, L. T. (April, 2009). What’s in it for me? Giving vs. receiving at work. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

The current study was conducted to examine if there is any benefit for individuals when they engage in helping behaviors. Specifically, the relationship between giving/receiving help in the workplace and employee well-being was examined. Gender was also investigated as a possible moderator of the relationship between giving/receiving and employee outcomes.

  • Curtis, S. L., & Eby, L. T. (April, 2009). Recovery at work: The relationship between identification and work attitudes. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

The complex makeup of the substance abuse treatment workforce poses unique challenges to this field. It is proposed that counselor recovery status will serve as an important factor in understanding work attitudes in the substance abuse treatment field. Based on social identity theory, we expect that counselors in recovery will identify more with their profession, leading to heightened professional and organizational commitment and job satisfaction, as well as lower turnover intentions. Results show that recovery status is significantly related to all outcomes except turnover intentions and that professional commitment mediates the relationships between recovery status and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

  • Hurst, C. S., Eby, L. T., & Butts, M. M. (April, 2009). Conversations about health: Development of a supervisor health and safety support scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

Study 1 was used to create a measure of supervisor health and safety support, and EFA results provide initial support for the 3 dimensional measure of support. CFA results were examined in study 2 and further supported the factor structure and reliability of the supervisor health and safety support measure.

  • Curtis, S. L., Eby, L. T., Hurst, C. S., Baranik, L. E., & Owen, C. L. (October, 2008). The relationship between clinician recovery status and work attitudes in the substance abuse treatment field. Poster presentation at the Addiction Health Services Research Conference, Boston, MA.

In the present research we predict that clinician recovery status represents an important anchor for an individual’s self-identity such that those who are personally in recovery will express lower intentions to leave their jobs, higher job satisfaction, and stronger professional commitment than those who are not personally in recovery. In testing these predictions we also compare counselors and clinical supervisors to examine whether recovery status is differentially related to work attitudes among the two groups. It was found that recovery status is significantly related to counselor work attitudes, but it is not related to supervisor attitudes. Our findings highlight the importance of considering clinician recovery status in research on the work attitudes of the substance abuse treatment workforce. It also points to the potential benefits of employing clinicians who are personally in recovery, which is often overshadowed by the concern that those in recovery are typically more rigid in their treatment approach and less likely to be licensed or certified.

  • Hurst, C. S., Eby, L. T., Baranik, L. E., & Owen, C. L. (April, 2008). Does bad beget bad in formal mentoring relationships? A dyadic study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.

This study examined how mentor reports of negative mentoring experiences relate to proteges’ negative mentoring experiences. As expected, all of the different types of negative mentoring experiences as reported by protégés were significantly and positively correlated with mentors’ reports of negative mentoring experiences with their protégés. The pattern of correlations illustrates that mentors’ negative experiences with protégés consistently demonstrate the strongest correlations with protégé reports of mentor neglect and manipulation.

  • Eby, L. T., McCleese, C. S., Owen, C., Baranik, L., & Lance, C. E. (October, 2007). A process-oriented model of the relationship between clinical supervision, burnout, and turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors. Poster presented at the annual Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference, Athens, GA.

We examined the relationship between positive and negative aspects of clinical supervision and the counselor outcomes of burnout and turnover intentions using a sample of 462 counselors working in substance abuse treatment facilities across the United States. Strong support was found for a mediated model whereby experiences in supervision relate to perceptions of burnout, which in turn relates to intentions to leave.


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