Non-Implementation of Tobacco Cessation Services

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Laschober, T. C., Muilenburg, J. L., & Eby, L. T. (in press). Factors linked to substance use disorder counselors’ (non)implementation likelihood of tobacco cessation 5 A’s, counseling, and pharmacotherapy. Journal of Addictive Behaviors Therapy & Rehabilitation.

Study Background: Despite efforts to promote the use of tobacco cessation services (TCS), implementation extensiveness remains limited. This study investigated three factors (cognitive, behavioral, environmental) identified by social cognitive theory as predictors of substance use disorder counselors’ likelihood of use versus non-use of tobacco cessation (TC) 5 A’s (ask patients about tobacco use, advise to quit, assess willingness to quit, assist in quitting, arrange for follow-up contact), counseling, and pharmacotherapy with their patients who smoke cigarettes.

Methods: Data were collected in 2010 from 942 counselors working in 257 treatment programs that offered TCS. Cognitive factors included perceived job competence and TC attitudes. Behavioral factors encompassed TC-related skills and general training. External factors consisted of TC financial resource availability and coworker TC attitudes. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models with nested data.

Results: Approximately 86% of counselors used the 5 A’s, 76% used counseling, and 53% used pharmacotherapy. When counselors had greater TC-related skills and greater general training they were more likely to implement the 5 A’s. Implementation of counseling was more likely when counselors had more positive attitudes toward TC treatment, greater general training, greater financial resource availability, and when coworkers had more positive attitudes toward TC treatment. Implementation of pharmacotherapy was more likely when counselors had more positive attitudes toward TC treatment, greater general training, and greater financial resource availability.

Conclusion: Findings indicate that interventions to promote TCS implementation should consider all three factors simultaneously as suggested by social cognitive theory.

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